Verses 1-4 – David and Jonathan’s friendship is one of the deepest and closest recorded in the Bible. They based their friendship on their commitment to God, not each other; they let nothing come between them; they grew closer when their friendship was tested; and they remained friends to the end.
Verse 8 – Saul’s appreciation for David turned to jealousy as people began to applaud David. Jealousy starts as you resent a rival; it leads to your wishing he or she be removed; and then it manifests itself in your seeking ways to harm that person in word or action. Jealousy can be one-step short of murder.
Verses 11, 12 – Saul tried to kill David because he was jealous of David’s popularity. I believe he was also jealous because God was with David and Saul knew God had left him. Sometimes people become jealous because they are intimidated by your strengths and it brings to light others shortcomings.
Verses 15-18 – While Saul’s popularity made him arrogant David remained humble. Saul tried a knew strategy to rid himself of David. He proposed that David marry Saul’s daughter, Merab in exchange for David’s increase role as a warrior. Saul thought if he sent David out to battle more often, the Philistines would kill him and end Saul’s problem.
Verse 19 – Merab was actually given in marriage to Adriel and had five sons, all of whom the Gibionites later put to death because of Saul’s sin against them (2 Samuel 21:8, 9).
Verse 21 – Perhaps Saul thought Michal would be a trap because she might distract David’s attention from his military duties or draw him away from God.
Verse 25 – To pay the bride price David had to kill 100 Philistines.
Verse 27 – David and his men secured twice the payment required – further evidence of David’s desire to please Saul regardless of the risk.
Verse 28 – Saul had anticipated Michal’s loyalties would remain with him, her father, but now he saw that Michal loved David. Through David’s friendship with Jonathan and now through his marriage to Michal, he was firmly established as part of the royal family.