Verse 1 – Ahimelech had to go against the law to give the consecrated bread to David because the bread (showbread) was supposed to be given only to the priest (Leviticus 24:5-9). But Ahimelech put David’s need and life ahead of religious ceremony and fed him. This upheld a higher law of love (Leviticus 19:18). To do good and save life is God’s greater law (Matthew 12:1-8; Luke 6:1-5).
Verse 2 – David lied to protect himself from Saul (21:10). Nowhere is David’s lying condoned. David’s small lie seemed harmless, but it led to 85 priests being killed (22:9-19). Lying, like every sin, is serious in God’s sight and may lead to all sorts of consequences. Not telling the entire truth is just as bad.
Verse 6 – This showbread was replaced every Sabbath and placed in the Holy place to symbolize God’s presence and provision. When the 12 loaves were replaced for fresh ones, only the priest could eat the old bread.
Verse 9 – David probably didn’t know Goliath’s sword was there because he had killed Goliath when he was very young.
Verses 10-15 – Why would the Philistines allow David to walk into their camp? The Philistines hated Saul, so maybe they were welcoming a defector. An enemy of Saul’s would have been considered a friend. Soon however, the Philistines became nervous about David’s presence. David then protected himself by acting insane because it was the custom not to harm mentally unstable people.