Verses 1, 2 – Notice what David did first – asked of God. Threshing floors were open, where the grain kernels were separated from their husks. This process is called winnowing. By looting the threshing floors, the Philistines were robbing Keilah’s citizens of all their food supplies.
Verse 7 – When Saul heard that David was in a walled town, he thought God was showing him favor because David would be trapped. David would be at Saul’s mercy. Saul wanted to kill David so bad that he interpreted any sign as God’s approval to move ahead with his plan. If Saul had known God better, he would have known God doesn’t approve of murder. Not every opportunity is sent from God. An opportunity to do something against God’s will can never be from God because God does not tempt us. When opportunities come, check your motives.
Verse 8 – Saul’s strategy was probably to besiege Keilah in the hope that its citizens would hand David over to them to ovoid destruction.
Verses 11, 12 – Through David’s inquiry, the Lord warned him that the citizens of Keilah would deliver him over to Saul, just as Saul had calculated.
Verse 13 – By calling off the expedition, Saul showed his true motive for wanting to invade Keilah.
Verses 16-18 – This may have been the last time David and Jonathan were together. David and Jonathan encouraged each other showing true friendship. They made a covenant again, as they had done before (18:3; 20:14-16).
Verses 19, 20 – The Ziphites informed Saul of David’s position in their territory and offered him over to the king.
Verse 26 – David may have hurried because he was outnumbered but on the other hand, he may have just wanted to avoid a bloody civil war.
Verse 28 – Israel’s enemies were capitalizing on Saul’s internal troubles.