Verse 3 – En Gedi is an area with many caves. Local people used these caves for housing and tombs. For David and his men they were a place of refuge. Some of these caves are large enough to hold thousands of people.
Verse 4 – Scripture does not record that God made any such statement to David or his men. We must remember, not every opportunity is necessarily from God. When David’s men saw Saul entering their cave, they wrongly assumed that this was an indication from God that they should act.
Verses 5, 6 – Although Saul was sinning and rebelling against God, David still respected the position he held as God’s anointed king. David knew one day he would be king and if he struck down the man God had placed on the throne, one day his opponents might remove him.
Romans 13:1-7 – teaches that God has placed the government and its leaders in power. There is one exception, however. Because God is our high authority, we should not allow a leader to pressure us to violate God’s law.
Verses 16-19 – The means we use to accomplish a goal are just as important as the goal we are trying to accomplish. We are not to compromise our moral standards by giving in to a group’s pressure.
Verses 21, 22 – David had promised to be kind to the descendants of Saul’s son Jonathan (20:14, 15), and he kept this promise when he invited Mephibosheth to live in his palace (2 Samuel 9).