Verse 3 – En Gedi is an area with many caves. Local people used these caves for housing and tombs. For David and his men they were a place of refuge. Some of these caves are large enough to hold thousands of people.
Verse 4 – Scripture does not record that God made any such statement to David or his men. We must remember, not every opportunity is necessarily from God. When David’s men saw Saul entering their cave, they wrongly assumed that this was an indication from God that they should act.
Verses 5, 6 – Although Saul was sinning and rebelling against God, David still respected the position he held as God’s anointed king. David knew one day he would be king and if he struck down the man God had placed on the throne, one day his opponents might remove him.
Romans 13:1-7 – teaches that God has placed the government and its leaders in power. There is one exception, however. Because God is our high authority, we should not allow a leader to pressure us to violate God’s law.
Verses 16-19 – The means we use to accomplish a goal are just as important as the goal we are trying to accomplish. We are not to compromise our moral standards by giving in to a group’s pressure.
Verses 21, 22 – David had promised to be kind to the descendants of Saul’s son Jonathan (20:14, 15), and he kept this promise when he invited Mephibosheth to live in his palace (2 Samuel 9).
Verses 1, 2 – Notice what David did first – asked of God. Threshing floors were open, where the grain kernels were separated from their husks. This process is called winnowing. By looting the threshing floors, the Philistines were robbing Keilah’s citizens of all their food supplies.
Verse 7 – When Saul heard that David was in a walled town, he thought God was showing him favor because David would be trapped. David would be at Saul’s mercy. Saul wanted to kill David so bad that he interpreted any sign as God’s approval to move ahead with his plan. If Saul had known God better, he would have known God doesn’t approve of murder. Not every opportunity is sent from God. An opportunity to do something against God’s will can never be from God because God does not tempt us. When opportunities come, check your motives.
Verse 8 – Saul’s strategy was probably to besiege Keilah in the hope that its citizens would hand David over to them to ovoid destruction.
Verses 11, 12 – Through David’s inquiry, the Lord warned him that the citizens of Keilah would deliver him over to Saul, just as Saul had calculated.
Verse 13 – By calling off the expedition, Saul showed his true motive for wanting to invade Keilah.
Verses 16-18 – This may have been the last time David and Jonathan were together. David and Jonathan encouraged each other showing true friendship. They made a covenant again, as they had done before (18:3; 20:14-16).
Verses 19, 20 – The Ziphites informed Saul of David’s position in their territory and offered him over to the king.
Verse 26 – David may have hurried because he was outnumbered but on the other hand, he may have just wanted to avoid a bloody civil war.
Verse 28 – Israel’s enemies were capitalizing on Saul’s internal troubles.
Verse 2 – David’s control over these men again shows his resourcefulness and ability to lead and motivate others. This group eventually formed the core of David’s military leadership and produced several “mighty men” (2 Samuel 23:8).
Verses 7, 8 – Saul and his key officers were from the tribe of Benjamin. David was from the tribe of Judah. Saul was appealing to tribal loyalty to maintain his hold on the throne.
Verse 13 – Saul’s question assumed Ahimelech was guilty of conspiracy. The king did not attempt to investigate the matter thoroughly.
Verses 14, 15 – Ahimelech implied no one was as faithful as David, which Saul had already heard from Jonathan and didn’t want to hear it again. Ahimelech claimed he had no idea of the real reason for David’s visit, which was true.
Verses 16, 17 – Saul ignoring Ahimelech’s words only proved more of Saul’s obsession to kill David. Even Saul’s most trusted soldiers weren’t willing to execute the priest because they weren’t sure whether they were guilty or not.
Verses 18, 19 – Saul’s action showed his mental and emotional instability and how far he had strayed from God. The total destruction of Nob was only supposed to be done under God’s command because of total rebellion against God. But it was Saul, not the priest or town people, who had rebelled against God.
Verse 20 – Abiathar escaped to David with an ephod (23:6). The Urim and Thummim were the two objects needed to consult God that were kept in the ephod. Saul destroyed Israel’s priesthood, but when David became king, he installed Abiathar as the new high priest Abiathar remained in that position during David’s entire reign.
Verse 1 – Ahimelech had to go against the law to give the consecrated bread to David because the bread (showbread) was supposed to be given only to the priest (Leviticus 24:5-9). But Ahimelech put David’s need and life ahead of religious ceremony and fed him. This upheld a higher law of love (Leviticus 19:18). To do good and save life is God’s greater law (Matthew 12:1-8; Luke 6:1-5).
Verse 2 – David lied to protect himself from Saul (21:10). Nowhere is David’s lying condoned. David’s small lie seemed harmless, but it led to 85 priests being killed (22:9-19). Lying, like every sin, is serious in God’s sight and may lead to all sorts of consequences. Not telling the entire truth is just as bad.
Verse 6 – This showbread was replaced every Sabbath and placed in the Holy place to symbolize God’s presence and provision. When the 12 loaves were replaced for fresh ones, only the priest could eat the old bread.
Verse 9 – David probably didn’t know Goliath’s sword was there because he had killed Goliath when he was very young.
Verses 10-15 – Why would the Philistines allow David to walk into their camp? The Philistines hated Saul, so maybe they were welcoming a defector. An enemy of Saul’s would have been considered a friend. Soon however, the Philistines became nervous about David’s presence. David then protected himself by acting insane because it was the custom not to harm mentally unstable people.
Verses 1, 2 – It is clearly a principle of scripture that when a father instructs a son to break God’s laws, the son should obey God rather than man. The principle assumes the son is old enough to see through the deception.
Verses 4, 5 – Jonathan spoke well of David and suggested that his father Saul should spare him for three reasons. First, David was innocent of any sin against Saul. Second, the Lord had used David to bring victory to Israel. Third, killing David for no reason would make Saul guilty of shedding innocent blood.
Verse 9 – Holding a spear while sitting in his palace may suggest Saul’s extreme paranoia.
Verse 13 – The household idol was apparently large enough that it would appear as though David’s body lay on the bed under a garment.
Verse 15 – Saul’s agents apparently did not want to challenge Michal’s word about David’s illness, so they returned to the king without him.
Verses 20-24 – This was the second time that Saul surprised everyone by joining a group of prophets and prophesying. This time though, Saul was consumed with jealousy over David’s growing popularity, but the Spirit of God immobilized him so he was unable to harm David. In both cases, Saul spoke God’s words, although he was far from thinking God’s thoughts.
Verse 5 – At the beginning of each month, the Israelites gathered to celebrate the New Moon festival. Other nations worshiped the moon itself. The Israelites, however, celebrated the festival at the time of the new moon, when the moon was not visible in the sky. Nothing in the creation is to be worshiped only the creator.
Verse 15 – Jonathan asked David to keep a promise to treat his children kindly in the future. Years later David took great pains to fulfill this promise (2 Samuel 9).
Verses 31, 32 – Saul was still trying to secure his throne for future generations even though he had already been told his dynasty would end with him (13:13, 14). Jonathan could have made a move to become the next king by killing his rival, but he bypassed this opportunity because of his love for both God and David (23:16-18).
Verses 1-4 – David and Jonathan’s friendship is one of the deepest and closest recorded in the Bible. They based their friendship on their commitment to God, not each other; they let nothing come between them; they grew closer when their friendship was tested; and they remained friends to the end.
Verse 8 – Saul’s appreciation for David turned to jealousy as people began to applaud David. Jealousy starts as you resent a rival; it leads to your wishing he or she be removed; and then it manifests itself in your seeking ways to harm that person in word or action. Jealousy can be one-step short of murder.
Verses 11, 12 – Saul tried to kill David because he was jealous of David’s popularity. I believe he was also jealous because God was with David and Saul knew God had left him. Sometimes people become jealous because they are intimidated by your strengths and it brings to light others shortcomings.
Verses 15-18 – While Saul’s popularity made him arrogant David remained humble. Saul tried a knew strategy to rid himself of David. He proposed that David marry Saul’s daughter, Merab in exchange for David’s increase role as a warrior. Saul thought if he sent David out to battle more often, the Philistines would kill him and end Saul’s problem.
Verse 19 – Merab was actually given in marriage to Adriel and had five sons, all of whom the Gibionites later put to death because of Saul’s sin against them (2 Samuel 21:8, 9).
Verse 21 – Perhaps Saul thought Michal would be a trap because she might distract David’s attention from his military duties or draw him away from God.
Verse 25 – To pay the bride price David had to kill 100 Philistines.
Verse 27 – David and his men secured twice the payment required – further evidence of David’s desire to please Saul regardless of the risk.
Verse 28 – Saul had anticipated Michal’s loyalties would remain with him, her father, but now he saw that Michal loved David. Through David’s friendship with Jonathan and now through his marriage to Michal, he was firmly established as part of the royal family.