Verse 1-3 – This particular sin that brought God’s wrath is not given. God did not cause David to sin, but He does allow people to reveal the sinfulness of their hearts by their actions. First Chronicles 21:1 says Satan incited David to count the people. David’s sin may have been pride and ambition in counting the people so that he could glory in the size of his nation and army. Even Joab knew a census was wrong, but David didn’t heed his advice. We do the same thing when we put our security in our money, positions, and our possessions.
Verse 10 – David’s conscience troubled him, revealing again that the work of God in his heart was not in vain. He confessed his sin and waited on the Lords response.
Verses 12-14 – God dealt with the whole nation through David. God gave David three choices. Each was a form of punishment God had told of in His law: Deuteronomy 28:20—disease; Deuteronomy 28:23, 24—famine; Deuteronomy 28:25, 26—war.
Verse 17 – David pleaded with God to strike only him and his family, but sin often has consequences that affect others.
Verse 18 – Many believe that this is the threshing floor where David built the altar and is the location where Abraham nearly sacrificed his son Isaac (Genesis 22:1-18). After David’s death, Solomon built the temple on this spot. Centuries later, Jesus would teach and preach here.
Verse 25 – The book of 2 Samuel describes David’s reign. Since the Israelites first entered the promise land under Joshua, they had been struggling to unite the nation and drive out the wicked inhabitants. Now after more than 400 years, Israel was finally at peace. Even though David sinned, God called him a “Man after God’s own heart. The Book of Psalms gives us a deeper insight into David’s love for God.
Verse 1 – The words “These are the last words of David” is not intended chronologically. Perhaps the section contains David’s last recorded public statement or testimony to God’s work through his life.
Verse 5 – “My house” denotes David’s family. God’s everlasting covenant with David’s house was ordered and secured in every detail.
Verses 6, 7 – David’s experience had taught him that the wicked had no future in God’s plan.
Verses 9, 10 – Eleazar displayed tenacity as he attacked the Philistines, yet the Lord brought the victory. The troops later returned later to plunder the dead—a means of securing extra payment for their military service.
Verse 12 – The Philistines and other enemies often came up Judah’s valleys to raid food supplies.
Verse 15 – Probably David’s wish came not only from his thirst, but from his desire that his hometown would once again know the peace that allowed people to drink from the well at the city gate freely.
Verse 16 – David poured out the water as an offering to God because he was so moved by the sacrifice it represented. David would not drink this water that represented the lives of his soldiers. Instead, he offered it to God.
Verse 18 – Abishai, Joab’s brother, played a leading role in David’s rise to power and kingship.
Verse 34 – According to 11:3 in 2 Samuel, Eliam was Bathsheba’s father. If this is the same Eliam, then Ahithophel, counselor to David and Absalom (15:31), would be Bathsheba’s grandfather.
Verse 39 – The text intentionally ends with the mention of Uriah the Hittite. Uriah was another foreigner among David’s mighty men. He gave his life for David under the most evil of circumstances (11:14-17).
David was a skilled musician who played his harp for Saul, instituted the music programs in the temple, and wrote more of the book of Psalms than anyone else. This royal hymn of thanksgiving is almost identical to Psalm 18.
Verse 3 – David calls God “the horn of my salvation” referring to the strength and defensive protection animals have in their horns.
Verses 22-24 – David was not denying that he had ever sinned. Psalm 51 shows his anguish over his sin against Uriah and Bathsheba. However, David understood God’s faithfulness and was writing this hymn from God’s perspective. He knew that God had made him clean again—“whiter than snow,” (Psalm 51:7) with a “pure heart” (Psalm 51:10). Through the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, we are made clean and perfect. God replaced our sin with purity through Christ.
Verse 1 – Agriculture at that time was completely dependent upon natural conditions. There were no irrigation, sprinklers, fertilizers, or pesticides. Even moderate variations in rainfall or insect activity could destroy an entire harvest.
Verses 1-14 – Although the Bible does not record Saul’s act of killing the Gibeonites, it was a serious crime making him guilty of their blood. Saul had broke the vow that the Israelites made to the Gibeonites (Joshua 9:16-20). Either David was following the custom of treating the family as a unit, or Saul’s sons were guilty of helping Saul kill the Gibeonites.
Verses 16-18 – By calling these men “descendants of Rapha” the writer was saying that they were giants.
Verse 1 – Sheba, son of Bichri, is not mentioned outside of this account. The Bible says he was a rebel.
Verse 2 – Once you stir a crowd up, they are hard to reason with. Following Sheba seemed to be the right thing to do at that moment, but the men of Judah escorted David all the way to Jerusalem.
Verse 3 – David compassionately provided for these 10 concubines that had slept with Absalom while David was gone but was never with them again.
Verses 4, 5 – Amasa, the new head of David’s army (19:13), was commanded to gather the men of Judah to crush Sheba’s revolt.
Verse 6 – Abishai was David’s next choice to lead the attack against Sheba.
Verse 8 – Gibeon was about four miles northwest of Jerusalem and Joab was present but not in charge. His sword fell out of its sheath, probably a deceptive move by Joab so Amasa would not see him as drawing his sword.
Verses 9, 10 – When Joab grabbed Amasa’s beard, Amasa wouldn’t be looking at Joab’s hand with the sword in it. Once again, Joab’s murderous act went unpunished. It may seem that sin and treachery often go unpunished, but God’s justice is not limited to this life’s rewards.
Verses 11-13 – After Joab covered and hid Amasa’s body, one of Joab’s men rallied everyone to follow Joab as their self-proclaimed, reappointed leader.
Verses 14, 15 – Sheba retreated far north. Besieging a city generally involved surrounding it, cutting off its food supply, building an assault ramp, and constructing battering rams to break down the city’s wall.
Verses 17-21 – When this woman spoke, Joab proceeded with caution. She was trying to handle a desperate situation without violence. The people didn’t want their city destroyed over one man.
Verse 22 – Once this woman talked to the people within the city walls, they found Sheba and cut off his head. When they threw the head over the wall, the revolt ended.
2 Samuel Chapter 19
Verses 4-7 – Joab’s actions are a helpful example to us when personal confrontation is necessary. Joab told David to go out and encourage his soldiers, lest they abandon him.
Restoration of David
Verse 8 – David sat at the gateway (city gate) because that was where business was conducted and judgment rendered. His presence there showed that he was over his mourning and back in control.
Verse 13 – This appointment of Amasa was a shrewd political move. Amasa had been Absalom’s commander. By replacing Joab, he accomplished two things. He secured the allegiance with the rebels in Israel, and he punished Joab for his previous crimes. All of these moves would help unite the kingdom.
Verses 19, 20 – By admitting his wrong and asking David’s forgiveness Shimei was trying to save his own life. His plan worked for a while. This day was of celebration, not execution. However, we read in 1 Kings 2:8, 9 that David advised Solomon to execute Shimei.
Verses 24-30 – David could not be certain if Mephibosheth or Ziba was in the right, and scripture leaves the question unanswered.
Verses 31-33 – Barzillai was a very wealthy man and had provided for David and his family. David wanted to reward Barzillai for his kindness.
Verse 37 – Barzillai considered himself too old to enjoy royal privileges and preferred to remain in his own city near his family tomb. But he introduced Kimham, who was apparently a close relative, to benefit from David’s offer.
Verse 39 – though Barzillai returned to his home, David never forgot him, later instructing Solomon to continue to show kindness to Barzillai’s household (1 Kings 2:7).
Verse 41 – Tensions between Judah and the other tribes that were evident earlier in Israel’s history now boiled to the surface again as the delegation from Israel challenged the king on the protocol for restoring him to Jerusalem.
Verse 43 – The men of Judah responded even more harshly and ended the conversation, but the tension between the tribes grew stronger.
Verse 1 – David took command as he had in his former days.
Verse 5 – The text makes it clear that David gave specific instructions about Absalom’s treatment, and it emphasizes that all the people heard the king’s orders.
Verse 11 – Joab once again decided to take matters into his own hands for what he believed to be the kings own good.
Verses 12-14 – This man had caught Joab in his hypocrisy. Joab could not answer, but only dismissed him.
Verse 19 – Ahimaaz had been David’s trusted messenger throughout the ordeal. May be he wanted to reach David first to break the news of Absalom’s death gently.
Verse 20 – Sometimes a solitary runner indicated good news and two runners together indicated bad news.
Verse 27 – David’s recognition of Ahimaaz brought the king hope that all is well.
Verses 32, 33 – David’s victory of winning the Kingdome back came with a heavy price of losing his son, Absalom. The gate chamber over the gate provided isolation for David though others could hear the sound of his wailing. Perhaps this is what we call today, “Bitter sweet.” On one side is victory but on the other, sadness over what was lost.